Home 9 Changing World 9 Science 9 Contrails: Tackling These Climate Culprits With AI

Contrails: Tackling These Climate Culprits With AI

by | 7 September 2023

The ethereal white trails that crisscross our skies, known as contrails, have long been a subject of intrigue and concern within the aviation sector. While they may appear harmless, their environmental ramifications are profound. A startling revelation from the 2022 Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) report suggests that clouds birthed from contrails are responsible for a staggering 35% of the aviation industry’s global warming effect. This surpasses even the impact of global jet fuel emissions.

One might assume that an increase in cloud cover would be beneficial, reflecting sunlight back into space. While there’s some truth to this, these clouds also trap heat, exacerbating global warming. The challenge lies in predicting and avoiding regions conducive to contrail formation during flights.

Video by Google. Learn more about this research at: https://g.co/research/contrails

In a bid to confront this environmental conundrum, Google Research, in a pioneering partnership with American Airlines and Breakthrough Energy, embarked on an ambitious project. Harnessing the power of cutting-edge artificial intelligence (AI) and a plethora of data – from satellite imagery to weather patterns – the aim was to craft contrail prediction maps. These maps would arm pilots with the knowledge to select routes that curtail the birth of these climate-altering streaks. A group of pilots at American flew 70 test flights over six months while using Google’s AI-based predictions, cross-referenced with Breakthrough Energy’s open-source contrail models, to avoid altitudes that were likely to create contrails. These test flights resulting in a reduction of contrails of 54%.

The essence of this revolutionary endeavour is rooted in AI’s ability to sift through vast, intricate datasets. By marrying space-captured satellite imagery with real-time meteorological insights, a holistic picture of contrail-friendly atmospheric conditions emerged. Flight path data, a pivotal piece of the puzzle, was also incorporated, enabling the creation of predictive algorithms that could forecast contrail formation along specific routes.

The overarching goal? Equip pilots with real-time contrail formation probabilities and empower them to make eco-conscious decisions, thereby diminishing their carbon footprint and the industry’s contribution to global warming.

However, this mission was not without its complexities. The intricate dance of atmospheric dynamics, ever-evolving weather patterns, and the integration of AI into existing flight systems presented formidable challenges. Yet, the unwavering commitment of Google Research’s AI maestros and American Airlines’ aviation experts bore fruit, culminating in the creation of reliable contrail prediction maps.

The diversions taken by the planes resulted in their using an additional 2% of aviation fuel, but on an ongoing basis, the teams believe this would only amount to an average of 0.3%.  Given the large reduction in contrails, there was a meaningful net reduction in carbon emissions.

The ripple effects of such an innovation are profound. Pilots, armed with precise forecasts, can recalibrate flight plans, reducing their environmental toll. This not only aids in climate change mitigation but also boosts airlines’ operational efficiency. Moreover, the AI models birthed from this project could pave the way for eco-optimization in other sectors, from shipping to logistics.

While the contrail prediction maps are a monumental stride in mitigating aviation’s climate impact, it’s but a single step in a marathon. The journey towards a sustainable aviation future mandates relentless research, innovation, and collaboration.


Sign-up to receive our newsletter

More from Science